Vera Lúcia Raposo


My academic journey commenced at Coimbra Law School, where I was hired immediately after completing my law degree, even before commencing my master’s program. Over the subsequent years, I obtained two more titles at the University of Coimbra: a master’s degree in 2002 and a PhD in Juridical-Political Sciences in 2012.
Throughout this period, I extensively travelled, serving as a visiting lecturer in various universities abroad, including the University of Florence, the University of Oradea, and the University of Cologne. I also spent two years in Angola, working at Agostinho Neto University in Luanda, while maintaining my contractual obligations with Coimbra University.
Post-2014, I secured a dual position as an Assistant Professor at both Coimbra University and the University of Macau, where I subsequently relocated. At the later, I undertook the role of coordinator for the Bachelor’s program in law taught in Portuguese and served as the principal investigator in the research group focusing on Law, Ethics, and Technology Studies. I was promptly promoted to Associate Professor and successfully spearheaded three significant research projects in health law and new technology.
However, in 2021, I decided to resign and return to Portugal, resuming my position at Coimbra University. During my tenure there, I was appointed as the chairholder of Constitutional Law for both the bachelor’s and master’s degree programs. Additionally, I secured funding for two research projects—one focusing on the legal framework of AI and the other on medical liability and AI.
In October 2023, I was offered a position at the NOVA School of Law to contribute to Law and Tech Studies. Since then, I have been actively involved in teaching various courses, predominantly at the master’s level, centred around digital law.
I also became a researcher at WhatNext.Law, a research centre that combines the efforts and expertise of the NOVA School of Law and Vieira de Almeida e Associados, one of Lis




Throughout my career, I have ventured into diverse scientific domains, each one breaking new ground in Portugal at the time of my engagement. Consequently, I became a pioneer in several different fields.
My initial research focus was on women’s rights, specifically women’s political rights, which formed the theme of my master’s thesis titled O Poder de Eva: O Princípio da Igualdade no Âmbito dos Direitos Políticos (Almedina, 2004), alongside sexual rights. Subsequently, I delved into reproductive rights during my PhD, particularly emphasizing the right to employ reproductive techniques as a fundamental reproductive right.
Over the subsequent decade, I concentrated extensively on various aspects of reproductive rights, publishing numerous impactful studies. For instance, my book De Mãe para Mãe: Questões Éticas e Legais Suscitadas pela Maternidade de Substituição (Almedina, 2004) remains a pivotal study on surrogacy. Additionally, my doctoral thesis, O Direito à Imortalidade (O Exercício de Direitos Reprodutivos Mediante Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida e o Estatuto Jurídico do Embrião In Vitro) (Almedina, 2014), stands as one of the most comprehensive studies covering reproductive rights, reproductive techniques, and associated procedures (including gene editing), significantly impacting both Portugal and Brazil. My scholarly contributions extended to well-regarded journals, such as the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry (‘Are Wrongful Life Actions Threatening the Value of Human Life?’ and ‘Gene Editing, the Mystic Threat to Human Dignity’) Developing World Bioethics (‘An Ethical Evaluation of the Legal Status of Foetuses and Embryos Under Chinese Law?’) and Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (‘Wrongful genetic connection: Neither blood of my blood, nor flesh of my flesh’).
I established a long-lasting collaboration with the Centre of Biomedical Law at Coimbra University, the Portuguese Conselho Nacional de Procriação Medicamente Assistida and international institutions. Notably, I was invited to Costa Rica in 2011 to participate in a Symposium on In Vitro Fertilization amid a pending lawsuit in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
Expanding my research scope, I delved into various medical law topics, including end-of-life decisions, medical liability, patient safety, and defective medical products. My works Do Ato Médico ao Problema Jurídico (Almedina, 2013) and Danos Causados por Medicamentos – Enquadramento Jurídico à Luz do Ordenamento Europeu (Almedina, 2018) remain relevant contributions to these discussions, not only in Portugal but also in the Portuguese speaking world. I co-authored Medical Law in Portugal (Kluwer Law International BV, 2022) and co-edited Medical Liability in Asia and Australasia (Springer, 2022), providing insights into the legal framework in various regions. My diverse publications span topics such as defensive medicine (‘Defensive Medicine and the Imposition of a More Demanding Standard of Care’, Journal of Legal Medicine, 2019), off-label prescription (‘The CJEU’s ruling in the Novartis Farma case – Money, Health and Medicines, Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 2020), innovation in pharmaceuticals (‘Safe Drugs Versus Innovative Drugs (Can We Have Both?), Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2020), human non-human chimaeras (‘Homo Chimaera After Homo Sapiens?: The Legal Status of Human–Non-Human Chimaeras with Human Brain Cells’, BioSocieties, 2023).
My most recent foray into research focuses on digital law. Currently, I am engaged in the process of applying for a Jean Monnet Chair on EU digital law and an FCT grant focusing on AI in medicine. Additionally, I am actively involved in numerous national and international research projects in these domains, presently under assessment. I also serve as an Ethical Adviser for the Horizon project, the AICE project.
I am recognised as one of the major legal experts in facial recognition technology due to my impactful publications (‘The Use of Facial Recognition Technology by Law Enforcement in Europe: A non-Orwellian Draft Proposal’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 2022; ‘When Facial Recognition Does Not ‘Recognise’ – Erroneous Identifications and Resulting Liabilities’, AI & Society, 2023; ‘Facial Recognition Technology: Is It Ready To Be Used in Public Health Surveillance?’, IDPL, 2023). Likewise, my on the European Act on AI ‘The European Draft Regulation on Artificial Intelligence: Houston, We Have a Problem’, in Progress in Artificial Intelligence, Springer, 2022.) solidified me as an expert on the AI Act. My insights on GDPR, health data, and cybermedicine have also garnered significant attention, reflected in my highly ranked publications.
My contributions to the scientific community garnered acknowledgement from the prestigious Hastings Center, where I was bestowed the title of Hastings Center Fellow, marking the first Portuguese individual to receive such recognition.



During the early stages of my career, I was fortunate to receive mentorship that guided my initial foray into the realm of research, equipping me with the essential skills, confidence, and intellectual integrity required in this field. Now, as an established researcher, I am committed to extending the same guidance to younger generations.
At the University of Macao, I annually opened positions in my research team for budding researchers fostering an environment where we collaborated and successfully published together. My collaborations with younger researchers resulted in impactful publications: VL Raposo and U S Wai, ‘Surrogacy In Greater China: The Legal Framework in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, and Mainland China’, UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal, 2017; VL Raposo and Z Ma, ‘The Juridical Status of the Unborn: A Person, an Object or a Tertium Genus?’, Peking University Law Journal, 2017; ‘An Ethical Evaluation of the Legal Status of Foetuses and Embryos Under Chinese Law?’, Developing World Bioethics, 2019.
Additionally, I cultivated productive partnerships with my PhD students, leading to significant publications, including: VL Raposo and MT Iong , ‘The struggle against the COVID-19 pandemic in Macao’, BioLaw Journal, 2020; ‘Advance Directives in Macao: Not Legally Recognised, but….’, in Advance Directives Across Asia: A Comparative Socio-legal Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2023; VL Raposo and S Liu, ‘A Bio-Civil Code for China: Articles 1006–1009 of the New Chinese Civil Code’, BioLaw Journal 2023.
At NOVA University, I am in the initial stages of creating a research group with young researchers. I hosted two PhD students who spent a semester with us, culminating in this collaborative work: VL Raposo and S Palmeri, ‘Femtech and the Law (or a Tale of how Eve Fights to Overturn Adam and Take Control over her Body)’, BioLaw Journal, 2023). The three of us are currently preparing another research output focused on health, the metaverse, and NFTs.



In addition to my extensive publications, my significant contributions to advancing research activities encompass my roles as a peer reviewer, convener of research groups, and organizer of scientific events.
As a frequent peer reviewer for various academic journals and book publishers, I am dedicated to providing comprehensive and constructive feedback. I meticulously evaluate research methodologies, interpretation of findings, and manuscript coherence.
My experience as a convener was primarily gained during my tenure at the University of Macau. There, I spearheaded the formation of a vibrant research group focused on Law, Ethics, and Technology Studies. This group emerged as the most active within our law school, securing the highest number of indexed publications.
Another key initiative within the group was organizing events that served as platforms for showcasing our members’ expertise and inviting external speakers to expand our network. I continue this endeavour at NOVA School of Law. Last year, to inaugurate the FutureHealth project, I orchestrated an international event titled ‘AI Robotics in Healthcare: A challenge for law and tech?’, which successfully solidified an academic partnership with the Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law at the University of Oslo. This year, I am actively planning an event focused on AI and medicine, partnering with BioMed-AI, and I am expecting the same outcome.



I envision academia as a place with robust connections to various societal actors. Embracing this vision, I am spearheading a project at NOVA School of Law called Market-Based Masters. This innovative project introduces a novel master’s thesis research model, establishing partnerships with stakeholders, both public and private entities in the Portuguese market and beyond.
This project offers substantial benefits to the PS. It grants them access to the students’ theses, potentially presenting innovative and practical legal approaches. It also facilitates the identification of prospective collaborators while garnering public recognition for their involvement in this pioneering initiative, reflecting their commitment to social responsibility.
For students, this initiative presents a wealth of opportunities. It fosters a unique relationship with potential employers, offers a valuable addition to their CVs, provides hands-on experience in a specific industry, and affords them the chance to explore topics of practical significance.
Ultimately, ‘Market-Based Masters’ at NOVA School of Law represents an innovative bridge between academia and industry, fostering symbiotic relationships that benefit both students and market stakeholders, while advancing practical legal expertise and social responsibility.



Raposo, VL ‘Lost in ‘Culturation’: medical informed consent in China (from a Western perspective), Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 2019, DOI: 10.1007/s11019-018-9835-0
This paper explored Chinese philosophy and legal frameworks on medical informed consent from the perspective of a Western scholar. It was a challenging piece to write, given my lack of prior expert knowledge of Confucianism and my inability to read Chinese. The support of my research team was, thus, essential. The paper received positive reception in the academic sphere, including within the Chinese community. To date, the paper has been cited in 23 studies in Web of Science (one of which was my own study) and 35 times in Google Scholar.

Vera Lúcia Raposo, ‘Can China’s ‘Standard of Care’ for COVID-19 be Replicated in Europe’”, Journal of Medical Ethics, 2020,
This is a particularly provocative paper, written during the dark days of the pandemic, while I was living in China. It serves as both a scathing critique of the Chinese government’s handling of the pandemic and a tribute to the resilience and bravery of the Chinese people. It was published in the Journal of Medical Ethics, ranked as the second-best medical ethics journal in the Oceania and Orient Region (OOIR) and third in Scimago rankings. Following this publication, I received an invitation to contribute a post to the Journal of Medical Ethics blog.

Vera Lúcia Raposo, ‘Ex Machina: Preliminary Critical Assessment of the European Draft Act on Artificial Intelligence, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 2022, eaac007,
My engagement with the AI Act began right after the release of its initial version when there was minimal commentary and widespread uncertainty surrounding its implications. Despite this, I persisted and have since produced numerous publications on this subject. Among them, the paper I’m referencing stands out as my most successful work, notably published in a highly ranked journal (indexed in Scopus and Web of Sciences, ranked as Q1 in Scimago). This particular paper opened doors for me, leading to invitations to join various European research projects centred on AI. Additionally, it facilitated a publishing agreement with Springer for an edited book dedicated to the AI Act.

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